My left arm would get heavy while
driving, and I'd drift out of my lane," Ray Perry says, recalling
his first serious complication in 17 years living with HIV. "Simple
things, like holding a bowl, quickly tired my left hand and wrist.
My doctor checked this and that, but found nothing. But it just got
worse and then hit my left leg." That was in April '97. The former
trucker had been on a protease cocktail for four months and was
feeling good for the first time in a while. Now Perry was worries
So he returned to his doctor and insisted on more tests. Although
a viral test of spinal fluid was inconclusive, an MRI brain scan
bore bad news: lesions. "My doctor told me, 'We think it's PML, but
can't be sure without a brain biopsy,'" Perry says. When his results
came back, his doctor told Perry he had PML, it was untreatable, and
he had one to four months to live.
But Perry had other plans. "I remember thinking, 'That's crap. I
don't accept this death sentence,'" he recalls.
PML -- its appropriately intimidating full name is progressive
multifocal leukoencephalopathy -- is one of the nastiest critters in
the AIDS menagerie. This opportunistic infection is caused by a
widespread microbe -- the JC virus (named for the first patient in
whom it was found) -- that results in disease only in those
chronically immunosuppressed, most commonly when CD4-cell counts
fall below 50. Studies of clinical diagnoses indicate that PML
occurs in 2 percent to 7 percent of all PWAs, but autopsy reviews
reveal higher numbers, suggesting PML is underdiagnosed. The disease
can cause a host of mental-function and movement problems, which can
progress to paralysis, coma and death. For years, the threat of PML
has terrified PWAs, offering the spectre of losing both one's mind
and one's ability to function. But now community pressure and PWA
experimentation have combined with scientific inquisitiveness to
produce real hope for the possibility of several effective
PML is very tough to diagnose.
Symptoms may or may not include weaknesses in one side of the body;
difficulty with eyesight, including a blind spot; and a possible
lack of coordination; as well as other physical or mental signs. The
infection damages white matter -- nerve tissue in the brain and
spinal cord -- resulting in lesions that can be read on a
noninvasive MRI scan. But Dawn McGuire, MD, a San Francisco
neurologist and nationally recognized PML expert, explains: "Doctors
often miss PML, or call brain lesions PML when they are not. Herpes
zoster, CMV and lymphoma can all imitate PML on scans and in
symptoms, but they differ in treatment." Other treatable conditions
that can mimic PML symptoms -- and thus risk misdiagnosis -- include
toxoplasmosis, stroke, brain tumor, mental illness, HIV brain
infection, or severe vitamin B-12 deficiency (which POZ
Science Editor Lark Lands notes may not always be reflected on
often-inaccurate standard blood tests for B-12 levels). Multiple
infections can also be present.
McGuire recalls two patients referred to her by experienced AIDS
doctors who made PML diagnoses based on MRI scans. After running a
brain biopsy on one patient, she found that his lesions were from
herpes zoster, treatable with acyclovir. "We had to fight the second
patient's HMO to get them to pay for a brain biopsy," McGuire says.
"It turned out the man had treatable lymphoma, not PML. Patients
have a right to get a definitive -- and quick -- diagnosis when
therapies are available." (See "How
to Tell It's PML" for a list of recommended diagnostic
While PML can be a killer even when aggressively treated -- its
most famous victim is MTV star Pedro Zamora -- some advocates charge
that physicians too often simply give up when PML is diagnosed or
even suspected, letting their patients die without a fight. Activist
Peter Brosnan, a Hollywood-based documentary filmmaker (profiled in
POZ, February-March 1996), has been on a mission to collect and publish case studies
of successful PML treatments ever since his brother-in-law died of
the disease more than 10 years ago. "I still get calls from people
whose doctors say, 'There's no treatment for PML' and 'PML is always
fatal,'" reports Brosnan. "That's tragic -- and it's not true."
Just ask Ray Perry. Though Perry had never touched a computer,
his diagnosis spurred him to get on the Internet at his local
library. He found the names of several PML researchers and called
them. After many dead ends, he learned about a clinical trial of
topotecan (Hycamtim), an approved chemotherapy shown in test-tube
studies to inhibit JC virus, with a study site in San Francisco. "By
then my left side was paralyzed. I couldn't walk, and I was in a
wheelchair," Perry recalls. "But I flew down and started getting
Topotecan, marketed by SmithKline Beecham for ovarian cancer,
interferes with DNA replication, the process by which both cancer
cells and viruses reproduce. But blocking cell proliferation can
produce dangerous neutropenia (white blood cell depletion) and
anemia (red blood cell depletion), so frequent monitoring is
essential and caution advisable when combining topotecan with other
bone-marrow-suppressive drugs. It can also cause nausea, vomiting
Perry, who began treatment in July 1997, experienced serious side
effects -- but also dramatic benefits. "After one three-week
infusion, there was an immediate improvement," he says. "By the
second round, the drug had suppressed my bone marrow so much that we
delayed the infusions for two weeks." Perry ultimately did three
courses of topotecan, requiring 10 blood transfusions. "Last
February, my MRI showed the lesions to be completely gone," he
reports. "By September, I was able to drive my stick-shift pickup
truck from Oregon to San Francisco and walk through a street fair."
While Perry and his doctor both
believe the topotecan aided his recovery, the drug's manufacturer --
which acquiesced to the tiny PML trial in 1997 only after activist
pressure -- isn't ready to claim any successes. SmithKline Beecham
spokesperson Sharyn Arnold explains, "It is a difficult study
because it is hard to know whether any benefit is due to topotecan
or to the anti-HIV drugs" also taken by participants. The other two
patients given topotecan in the San Francisco site had very advanced
PML when they began treatment. Both died after their first
In fact, there are several potential treatment strategies
available to people with PML. Experts widely agree that as soon as
any PML-type symptoms appear, the first step is to initiate or
maximize anti-HIV therapy, aiming to restore immune function and
prevent PML progression. While some studies show that a standard
regimen can make a key difference, another report suggests that such
a combo by itself may not always work fast enough. This leads
some neurologists to recommend considering stronger-than-standard
HAART regimens. Because neurological symptoms may have multiple
causes -- one of which is often HIV in the brain -- other clinicians
suggest including at least one antiretroviral known to cross the
blood-brain barrier. Studies have found nevirapine (Viramune) and
AZT to be the most potent brain-penetrating agents (see "Nevirapine
for Best Head," POZ, December 1998).
Another drug being studied for PML is cidofovir, a drug produced
by Gilead and approved by the FDA in 1996 for cytomegalovirus (CMV)
retinitis. This compound has been found to have test-tube activity
against JC-like viruses. Case reports of the off-label (unapproved)
use of the drug for PML, published last year, documented some
improvement in 11 of 22 patients observed. But Gilead warns that
cidofovir can be highly toxic to the kidneys and, to protect them,
must be used with the drug probenecid and adequate IV hydration.
Cidofovir can also cause toxicities to the eyes and other organs.
Two PML clinical trials are under way.
Still another approach is a higher-than-usual dose of acyclovir
(Zovirax), an approved antiherpes agent. Brosnan cites numerous
anecdotal reports of people diagnosed with PML who noted improvement
after taking 2,000 to 4,000 milligrams of acyclovir per day.
However, the PML diagnosis was often not confirmed by JC viral load
or biopsy, so it's possible these patients were infected or
co-infected with herpes zoster.
Peptide T, a decade-old experimental AIDS drug, has had mixed
results -- although virtually no toxicity -- in trials for various
neurological and cognitive disorders. Test-tube studies show that it
blocks JC replication, and numerous PWAs diagnosed with PML have
reported dramatic improvements using the drug as either high-dose
nasal spray (available through the PWA Health Group in New York
City) or continuous infusions (see "PML
Is for Heroes"). A multisite PML trial of infused peptide T will
begin later this year.
One PML treatment option formerly in use -- the highly toxic
nucleoside drug ARA-C -- was abandoned by clinicians in 1997 after a
study found it did not improve survival.
While PML remains an untamed killer, Brosnan says that increasing
numbers of PWAs are fighting back and winning. For now, a prudent
strategy would include immediate use of all needed diagnostic
procedures, maximization of anti-HIV therapy and evaluation of all
possible PML treatments. Brosnan adds, "I've gotten numerous reports
of people who've benefited from immediately starting low-toxicity
but unproven treatments such as peptide T or high-dose acyclovir,
even while waiting for their doctors to diagnose them and decide on
Perry urges PWAs and AIDS docs to learn about PML and address it
quickly. "God forbid that anyone else should have their doctor
misdiagnose them for two months, then tell them to go home and pick
out a casket," he says.
PML IS FOR HEROS
Greg Corbin lives to tell the tale
Two years ago, the doctor treating Greg Corbin for PML made him promise
he would stop smoking by age 50. Corbin, who has been
outsmarting people since he was a pudgy gay kid with glasses
in rural Rhode Island, figured his seemingly terminal
condition made it a safe bet. Now at 38, after what he calls
"a health-restoring regimen of peptide T and determination,"
Corbin worries that this time he's outsmarted himself.
He couldn't have envisioned such a predicament in late
1995, when the first, subtle signs of PML appeared. Soon he
was having trouble walking. Yet it wasn't until January 1996
that Corbin -- as sick of doctors as he was of AIDS after a
decade of both -- submitted to a spinal tap. When the test for
the JC virus came back positive, Corbin recalls his doctor
saying, "You better put your affairs in order -- quickly."
As the PML short-circuited his nervous system and robbed
him of clear vision and mobility, Corbin waited in his Boston
bed to die. It was at Corbin's lowest point, in Spring 1996,
that his brother read in POZ about Peter Brosnan's
comprehensive report on PML treatments. After contacting
Brosnan and learning of several PWAs' success with an
experimental treatment called peptide T, he ordered a bottle
from a San Francisco buyers club. Corbin took his first dose
on April 7, 1996.
The date marked his "first step out of PML hell." Three
days after starting the intranasal spray, his vision was
corrected. By April 20, he was able to transfer himself to a
wheelchair. Then he switched to a walker, and in May 1997, a
cane. The wheelchair is now locked in the closet -- "where it
belongs," he says.
Corbin has come out of the closet as a PML survivor with a
webpage, "Greg's Ascent" (www.skepsis.com/~gregc).
"There can't be more than a handful of us alive with this," he
says to explain why a confirmed homebody like Corbin is
sacrificing his privacy to get his story out. "When you're a
trailblazer, it's nice to know that others can take the path
He shares his life with his 11-year-old cat, Hug ("I didn't
name him"), and his AIDS Action buddy, Fred, 56, who provides
conversation and cribbage. "There's a large gap of gay men in
their 40s and 50s who are missing, " says Corbin. "Fred and I
can talk about things."
A few days after our talk, Corbin calls to make sure our
story mentions Kate Katz, a 73-year-old who drives him to
Friday chiropractor appointments. It's not a request, but a
reminder that Corbin is now in charge. "I control my future,
not some initials," he says. Make a note of it.
The devil's in the details
If PML is suspected,
other possibilities have been carefully excluded, and
treatment is desired, what's next? PML expert Sidney Houff,
MD, PhD, chief of the Neurology Service at the Veterans
Affairs Medical Center in Washington, DC, recommends the
following diagnostic steps:
1. Immediately get an MRI brain scan -- it's more sensitive
and may reveal more lesions than would a CT scan.
2. If characteristic white-matter lesions are seen, a brain biopsy
should be seriously considered to confirm the diagnosis -- but
only at an institution experienced with the procedure. One of
two methods for detecting the JC virus must be used:
- The virus' genetic material can be easily identified via
what's called in situ hybridization using a JCV DNA probe,
an extremely sensitive and specific test.
- JC antibodies can be applied to the brain tissue to
prove the virus is present.
While less than 7
percent of biopsies result in serious complications (under 1
percent at experienced centers), discuss with the surgeon the
possibilities for harm.
Although some clinicians suggest that PCR testing of
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) might substitute for brain biopsy in
confirming PML, NIH researchers have found that only 80
percent of people with biopsy-confirmed PML have JC virus in
the CSF, and that a small percentage with other neurological
conditions do have JC virus in the CSF. So, using CSF as a
primary diagnostic tool may lead to a misdiagnosis, making a
brain biopsy best.