As hepatitis C ravages U.S. prisons, a district court judge has allowed the 30 percent of Oregon inmates with the virus to join a suit charging the state’s penal system with a “willful refusal” of treatment. Individual prisoners—some co-infected with HIV—started suing in 2001, after exhausting the grievance process. The judge’s decision can help can a cruel and unusual punishment and set a precedent for other states.