Myanmar—In some regions of the world’s second-largest heroin exporter, 78% of drug users test positive for HIV. International organizations have set up limited needle exchanges.

Russia—Since the ’80s, more than 70% of reported HIV cases have been among drug injectors. Swap sites are legal, but cops lurk nearby and harass visitors, making the sites unpopular.

Malaysia—76% of HIVers are also injection-drug users. A state-sponsored needle-exchange program is expected to begin in January 2006, though local Muslims oppose free needles.

China—Drug injectors account for 70% of HIV cases. In the past few years, the government has crept out of its longtime AIDS denial, only introducing syringe swapping in 2005.