Three gay or bisexual men, all of them HIV positive and in New York City, have contracted invasive meningococcal disease since August 24, in an apparent resurgence of the 2010 to 2013 outbreak, The New York Times reports. At this time last year, signs indicated the meningitis outbreak was likely under control, thanks to an aggressive vaccination campaign.

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene issued a release on September 5 about the new cases and stressed that it still recommends the meningococcal conjugate vaccine for all HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), as well as MSM, regardless of their HIV status, who regularly meet men for sex via websites, apps, bars or parties. HIV-positive people should receive two doses of the vaccine. Those planning to visit New York should also consider vaccination. In addition to clinics, many pharmacies, such as Duane Reade and Walgreens, offer vaccination.

None of the three recent cases have been fatal. The three men were all black, Latino or a combination of the two, and were between 21 and 55 years old. Two live in the 11212 ZIP code of Brooklyn and one of them in Queens.

Medical providers are urged to be vigilant for cases of meningitis and to alert the health department immediately in the event of a suspected case, without waiting for the results of a test for the infection.

An estimated 20 to 25 percent of those New Yorkers whom the health department recommended to be vaccinated have received at least one dose of the vaccine since the last outbreak began.

For more information about meningitis, click here.

To read the New York Times story, click here.

To read the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene press release, click here.