HIV is associated with a high risk of various forms of cardiac dysfunction.

Publishing their findings in JACC: Heart Failure, researchers conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 63 reports from 54 studies that included approximately 125,000 adults living with HIV.

The researchers pooled the prevalence of types of cardiac dysfunction among the overall population of study participants, among whom there were 12,655 cases of such conditions. A total of 12.3 percent of the participants had left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), 12 percent had dilated cardiomyopathy, 29.3 percent had Grades I to III of diastolic dysfunction and 11.7 percent had Grades II to III of diastolic dysfunction.

A total of 6.5 percent of participants had clinical heart failure. The diagnosis rate for the condition was 0.9 per 100 cumulative years of follow-up.

The combined prevalence for different forms of pulmonary hypertension was 11.5 percent. For various types of right ventricular dysfunction, the combined prevalence was 8 percent.

The study authors identified a trend for lower prevalence of LVSD in studies that reported a higher rate of antiretroviral treatment or a lower rate of AIDS diagnoses. Studies conducted in Africa also had higher LVSD rates. After taking into account regional variations in rates of the condition, the investigators found evidence that LVSD was less common among studies published more recently.

“Cardiac dysfunction is frequent in people living with HIV,” the study authors concluded. “Additional prospective studies are needed to better understand the burden and risk of various forms of cardiac dysfunction related to HIV and the associated mechanisms.”

To read the study abstract, click here.