1. HIV Treatment for All

Evolving treatment guidelines have recommended starting antiretrovirals at various CD4 thresholds in an effort to balance benefits and side effects. But this changed as research showed that the benefits of treatment outweigh the harms at all stages of disease. In 2010, San Francisco began to offer treatment for everyone diagnosed with HIV, followed by New York City a year later. In 2012, the Department of Health and Human Services guidelines were revised to recommend antiretroviral therapy for everyone living with the virus, regardless of CD4 count, to reduce illness and death and curb transmission. The World Health Organization followed suit in 2015, making the recommendation for universal treatment applicable worldwide.