According to a recent study by the Thai Public Health Ministry, 30% of Thailand’s new HIV infections occur in married women, a rate higher than that of men who have sex with men (20%) and intravenous drug users (10%). Worldwide, an estimated 80% of newly infected women report practicing monogamy within a marriage or a longterm relationship. Nazneen Damji, an HIV specialist at UNIFEM, the UN agency focusing on women’s issues, says many unfaithful men view using a condom as an admission of infidelity, and women feel powerless to demand latex—or may simply wish to become pregnant. Prevention programs must encourage men and women to communicate about sexual behavior and then empower women by building their leadership skills and self-esteem, she says, adding that “new laws and other efforts must transform social expectations to allow women to live independent lives socially and eco-nomically.” No small change.