"Watch and wait” is the usual advice to women who have received standard surgical treatment for high-grade cervical dysplasia—the abnormal changes in cells that can lead to cervical cancer, found more often among those with HIV. But the new post-operative prescription may become a topical vaginal cream containing 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a chemotherapy. In a comparison study of 101 women with HIV, half used the topical cream for six months while the others did not. Eighteen months later, those given the 5-FU had a recurrence rate of only 28 percent compared to 47 percent of the watchful waiters.