“Non-AIDS events,” or NAEs, are a significant cause of sickness and death among people with HIV—in particular psychiatric, liver, kidney and cardiovascular conditions, as well as cancer—according to a large Spanish study of 5,185 people with HIV, spanning 2004 to 2010. According to the study, antiretroviral therapy can lower the risk of some NAEs, most notably psychiatric and kidney conditions—which is notable considering the ongoing research else-where into ARVs' potential harm to the kidneys. Qualities associated with greater risk of NAEs included older age, less education, contracting HIV through a means other than sex, a higher viral load and a lower CD4 count. NAEs contributed to 29 percent of the 173 deaths during the study period.